miércoles, 23 de noviembre de 2016

Leonard Cohen



Watch the video and answer the questions.

1. Where was Leonard Cohen born?
2. When did he move to New York?
3. ...and how old was he then?
4. Who did they compare him with?
5. Who did he write songs for?
6. What did he write about?
7. How long did the extensive tour last?
8. How much money was he unable to collect from his manager?
9. When did he release his last album?
10. How many times did he marry?







Key 

  1. Quebec
  2. 1966 
  3. he was 31 
  4. Bob Dylan 
  5. Judy Collins 
  6. religion, Jesus Christ, Jewish traditions, love and sex. 
  7. 5 years 
  8. 9 million dollars 
  9. last month
  10.  None

Rephrasing on tenses 3

 
 Complete the sentences with a logical ending. Use the words in brackets and a suitable future tense. 

1. You are standing on a broken chair. (fall)
    Be careful! ....................................................................  .
2. This film is full of surprises. (end)
    How ............................................................................  ?
3. I’ve got a lot to study for next week’s exam. (not go out with friends)
    Until then, I ...................................................................  .
4. My friends are busy tonight. (study)
    They ...........................................................................  .




KEY

1. Be careful! You’re going to fall.
2. How will it end?
3. Until then, I’m not going to go out with friends / I won’t be going out with friends. / I’m not going out with friends.
4. They are going to study / are studying / will be studying.

Toblerone's trim: Is this the thin end of the wedge?

Here's the good news. There's no need to plan your January diet this year. The food brands are doing it for you. They're selling you a slimmed down version of their product for the same price.
            So while the checkout till rings up the same total as usual, your shopping bag may be considerably lighter because manufacturers are shaving costs by giving us slightly less chocolate, or fish or ice cream, in what looks like the usual packet. It's known as "shrinkflation". If the portion size is getting stingier - shrinking - but the price stays the same, then you're effectively paying more - inflation.
            For instance, as you'll no doubt have heard, the Toblerone is being redesigned for the UK market; its Alpine peaks are being eroded to compensate for the rising cost of ingredients, and a lighter bar is being sold for the same price. The 400g bar is now a 360g bar and instead of 15 peaks it boasts only 11.
            But - and here's the bad news - there could be more of it to come. According to the consumer organisation Which?, several brands were guilty of this "sneaky way of increasing prices" last year. Tropicana reduced the size of its Orange and Raspberry juice by 15%, packets of McVitie's Digestive dark chocolate biscuits lost around 10% in weight, and Princes is putting less mackerel in each of its tins. But thanks to the pound's recent weakness and higher costs of ingredients, manufacturers may be tempted to go further.
            "I think it's going to happen even more," says Ratula Chakraborty, retail specialist at the University of East Anglia. Manufacturers want to keep their prices low, and inflation is happening, commodity prices are changing, so who is going to pay for it? It will be you and I who pay for it." She thinks we should keep an eye on products across the board in coming months."I would say we should be watching out everywhere, food products, fresh produce, household products, grocery products."
            Toblerone's owner Mondelez says,” It is cost pressures that are behind the change. Cocoa in particular has risen sharply in price over the last decade. And the weaker pound since the UK's vote to leave the EU means it's even more expensive to pay for those kinds of raw ingredients on the world market.”

Question 1 (2 points) Indicate whether the following statements are true or false and write down which part of the text justifies your answer.

a. Food packets change according to the amount of the product inside.
b. The Toblerone bar will be smaller everywhere.
c. Some other chocolate and biscuit brands reduced the weight of their products before   Toblerone did it.
d. Ratula Chakraborty is afraid that "shrinkflation" will be applied to a lot more products in the future.

Question 2 (2 points) Answer the following questions in your own words

a. How has the Toblerone bar changed?
b. What has made Toblerone’s manufacturers redesign its bar?

Question 3 (1.5 points) Find words or phrases in the text that correspond in meaning to the words and definitions given.
a. reduce (par.1)              b. tricky, dishonest  (par.4)     c. attract, invite (par.4)
d. look closely (par.5)      e. unprocessed (par.6)

Question 4 (1.5 points) Complete the following sentences without changing the meaning.

a) They're selling you a slimmed down version of their product for the same price.
You ……………………………………………….
b) Cocoa prices will go down next year but prices won’t be reduced.
Even if …………………………………………..
c) Mondelez says,” It is cost pressures that are behind the change. Cocoa in particular has risen sharply in price over the last decade.”
Mondelez said …………………………………

Question 5 (3 points) Write a short essay (120-150 words) on the following topic:


Which addictions are safer than others? Is it good to be addicted to something like chocolate?

Indian government declares Delhi air pollution an emergency

The Indian government has declared severe levels of toxic air pollution in Delhi an “emergency situation” as administrators announce a plan to temporarily shut construction sites and a coal-fired power station to bring the situation under control.
                Schools in the capital will be closed for three days and traffic may be rationed, following six days of heavy smog and concentrations of harmful particles so high they cannot be measured by most air quality instruments. The level of PM2.5 pollutants, which are the most harmful because they can reach deep into the lungs and breach the blood-brain barrier, have reached at least 999 in parts of the city this week, more than 16 times the safe limit of 60.
                On Sunday, Delhi’s chief minister, Arvind Kejriwal, announced emergency measures aimed at protecting residents, including a five-day ban on construction and demolition, thought to be a major contributor to pollution levels.
                Kejriwal has called on neighbouring states to enforce laws against burning agricultural waste. Around this time each year, hundreds of thousands of farmers in Haryana and Punjab set their fields on fire to dispose of crop remnants, sending smoke billowing across India’s northern plains. The Delhi government is preparing to reintroduce a temporary scheme to only allow cars to drive on odd or even days depending on the last digit of their registration numbers.
                Airborne pollution in Delhi rarely stays within safe levels, even during summer, when winds are stronger and dust and droplets disperse more easily in the hot air. It is traditionally worst in the winter months, beginning with Diwali, when hundreds of thousands of fireworks are let off across the city. They leave a haze that usually last for two or three days, but has persisted for almost a week this year.
                The Centre for Science and Environment, a Delhi-based NGO, has said the air quality is the worst the Indian capital had seen in 17 years. Hospitals in the city have reported increased admissions of people suffering respiratory diseases – of which India has the highest rate in the world, with 159 deaths per 100,000 people in 2012, according to the World Health Organisation. Children are particularly vulnerable, a 2015 study finding about half the city’s 4.4 million schoolchildren had stunted lung development and would never completely recover.
                Arti Maria, an associate professor of paediatrics at the Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital told local media the air was “killing presently”. “[The] presence of even little smoke is considered harmful for newborn and toddlers. The air quality right now can lead to slow brain development, mental irritation and psychological problems,” she said.
                The city struggled with poor air quality in the 1990s but managed to clear its atmosphere by raising emissions standards for vehicles, mandating its fleet of taxis and buses use compressed natural gas and moving some heavy industry to the outskirts of the city.
                Other than smoke from fires in neighbouring states, the city’s poor air is attributed to a combination of road dust, exhaust fumes, industrial emissions and open fires, including those lit by poorer residents to cook and keep warm.

Question 1 (2 points) Indicate whether the following statements are true or false and write down which part of the text justifies your answer.

a.  It is known how much pollution was reached.
b.  Farmers are used to burning their fields after harvesting.
c.  Fireworks make pollution increase.
d.  Smoke causes only respiratory diseases.

Question 2 (2 points) Answer the following questions in your own words.

a.  When is there less pollution in India? Why?
b. How was pollution reduced before?

Question 3 (1.5 points) Find words or phrases in the text that correspond in meaning to the words and definitions given.

a. toxic (par.2)                                     b. proposed to (par 3)                                       c. make stronger (par 4.)
d. harmless (par 5)                             e. fought (par 8)

Question 4 (1.5 points) Complete the following sentences without changing the meaning.

a. The Centre for Science and Environment has said the air quality is the worst the Indian capital had seen in 17 years
                The air quality...
b. The PM2.5 pollutants are the most harmful because they can reach deep into the lungs.
                Since...
c. Schools in the capital will be closed for three days and traffic may be rationed.
                The government...

Question 5 (3 points) Write a short essay (120-150 words) on the following topic:


Traffic shouldn’t be allowed in city centres. Do you agree?

Toblerone's trim: Is this the thin end of the wedge?

KEY


Question 1

a) False. “manufacturers are shaving costs by giving us slightly less chocolate, or fish or ice cream, in what looks like the usual packet.
b) False. “, the Toblerone is being redesigned for the UK market”
c) True. “Tropicana reduced the size of its Orange and Raspberry juice by 15%, packets of McVitie's Digestive dark chocolate biscuits lost around 10% in weight, and Princes is putting less mackerel in each of its tins.”
d) True. “She thinks we should keep an eye on products across the board in coming months."I would say we should be watching out everywhere, food products, fresh produce, household products, grocery products."

Question 2


      a) The Toblerone bar used to have fifteen peaks but now it has only 11;there’s a bigger gap between peaks. The  bar is also forty grams lighter.
     b) They argue that the price of  cocoa is higher now and, due to the decreasing value of the pound in international
       markets, it is getting harder and harder to pay for the ingredients they need to manufacture the bar.

Question 3

a) Slimmed down / to Slim down
b) Sneaky
c) Tempted / to tempt
d) Watching out / to watch out
e) Raw

Question 4

a) You are being sold a slimmed down version of their product for the same price.
b) Even if cocoa prices went down next year, prices wouldn’t be reduced.
c) Mondelez said it was cost pressures that were behind the change. Cocoa in particular had risen sharply in price over the last decade.

Indian government declares Delhi air pollution an emergency

KEY

Question 1
a) False. concentrations of harmful particles so high they cannot be measured by most air quality instruments.
b) True. set their fields on fire to dispose of crop remnants
c) True. fireworks are let off across the city. They leave a haze that usually last for two or three days
d) False. The air quality right now can lead to slow brain development, mental irritation and psychological problems,” she said.

Question 2
a)  Summer. Because of the wind.
b) Making the public transport friendly with the environment.

Question 3
a) harmful
b) aimed
c) enforce
d) safe
e) struggled

Question 4
a)  The air quality...has been said to be the worst the Indian capital had seen in 17 years.
b) Since... the PM2.5 pollutants can reach deep into the lungs, they are the most harmful
c) The government... will close the schools and may ration traffic.