miércoles, 5 de abril de 2017

A3D-printed prosthetic limbs: the next revolution in medicine

V
           



John Nhial was barely a teenager when he was grabbed by a Sudanese guerrilla army and forced to become a child soldier. He spent four years fighting, with guns almost too heavy to hold, until one day the inevitable happened: he was seriously injured, treading on a landmine while he was on morning patrol. “I stepped on it and it exploded,” he recalled. “It threw me up and down again – and then I tried to look for my leg and found that there was no foot.”
            His comrades carried him back to base camp, but there was hardly any medical care available. It took 25 days before he received proper treatment, during which time he developed tetanus down one side of his body. Finally, Nhial was put on a flight to the Kenyan border, his life only saved when he was handed over to a Red Cross team.Now, a decade later, he lives in a Juba refugee camp, having suffered further troubles in the conflict of South Sudan. He plays wheelchair basketball for his country, although he relies on a prosthetic lower leg to struggle around the muddy, sprawling camp. But at least his hands are free to carry things such as food and water, unlike those on crutches.
            The World Health Organization estimates there are about 30 million people like Nhial who require prosthetic limbs, braces or other mobility devices, yet less than 20% have them. Prosthetics can involve a lot of work and an investment of  time and financial cost to patients, who may have to travel long distances for treatment that can take five days.
            However, technology may be hurtling to the rescue – in the shape of 3D printing. It has been revolutionising aspects of medicine since the start of the century, just as it has had an impact on so many other industries, from cars to clothing. Perhaps this is not surprising, given that its key benefit is to enable the rapid and cost-efficient creation of bespoke products. There are few commercial products that need to suit a wider variety of shapes and sizes than medical devices made for human beings.
            Experts have developed 3D-printed skin for burn victims, splints for infants, facial reconstruction parts for cancer patients, orthopaedic implants for pensioners. The fast-developing technology has churned out more than 60m customised hearing-aid shells and ear moulds, while it is daily producing thousands of dental crowns and bridges from digital scans of teeth, replacing the traditional wax modelling methods used for centuries.So it is no surprise that the technology has begun to stir interest in the field of prosthetics, even if sometimes by accident.
Adapted from The Guardian

Question 1: [2,5 POINTS] Indicate whether the following statements are true or false and write down which part of the text justifies your answer.    
  
            a) John Nhial participated in the Sudanese guerrilla against his will.
            b) Nhial got his treatment in his country thanks to the Red Cross team.
            c) Doctors and experts travel and invest money to help their patients.
            d) The mayority of people in Sudan have prosthetics because of these conflicts.
            e) 3D printers are used for other kinds of accidents or incidents.

Question 2: [1,5 POINTS] Find words or phrases in the text that correspond to the words and definitions given.

          a) Taken by force (paragraph 1)
          b) Face with difficulty ( paragraph 2)
          c) Money or time you spend for a good purpose ( paragraph 3)
          d) Designed, made to measure ( paragraph 4)
          e) Mass- produced ( paragraph5 )

Question 3: [2 POINTS] Choose the most suitable answer (a, b or c) according to the text and write down the answer.

1. In spite of…
            a) the fact that he was amputating, he continued with his rhythm of life.
            b) being amputated John Nhial has continued with his rhythm of life.
            c) having being amputated, he continued with his rhythm of life.

2.If experts hadn´t run different tests…
            a) They wouldn´t develop prosthetics in these patients nowadays.
            b) They would have developed prosthetics in these patients nowadays.
            c) They wouldn´t have developed prosthetics in these patients nowadays.

3.  Many companies have seen the impact of 3D- printing products.
            a) Nevertheless, they would create more gadgets and tools for its improvement.
            b) That´s why they would create more gadgets and tools for its improvement.
            c) Even though they would create more gadgets and tools for its improvement.

4.New methods and designs
            a) would have been turned into reality in a near future.
            b) will be turned into reality in a near future.
            c) would be turning into reality in a near future.

Question 4: [4 POINTS] Write a short essay (about 120-150 words) on the following topic:

Advantages and disadvantages  of  new technology in medicine.

from Lorena Barquín



KEY VA


Question 1:

a)     TRUE “when he was grabbed by a Sudanese guerrilla army and forced to become a child soldier”
b)    FALSE “Finally, Nhial was put on a flight to the Kenyan border, his life only saved when he was handed over to a Red Cross team”
c)      FALSE “Prosthetics can involve a lot of work and an investment of  time and financial cost to patients, who may have to travel long distances for treatment that can take five days.”
d)     FALSE “The World Health Organization estimates there are about 30 million people like Nhial who require prosthetic limbs, braces or other mobility devices, yet less than 20% have them”
e)      TRUE “Experts have developed 3D-printed skin for burn victims, splints for infants, facial reconstruction parts for cancer patients, orthopaedic implants for pensioners”


Question 2:

                a) Taken by force (paragraph 1)- GRABBED

                b) Face with difficulty ( paragraph 2) - STRUGGLE
                c) Money or time you spend for a good purpose ( paragraph 3) INVEST

                d) Designed, made to measure ( paragraph 4)- BESPOKE

                e) Mass- produced ( paragraph5 )- CHURNED OUT

Question 3:  

1. c) having being amputated, he continued with his rhythm of life.
2. a) They wouldn´t develop prosthetics in these patients nowadays.
3.  a) Nevertheless, they would create more gadgets and tools for its improvement.

4. b) will be turned into reality in a near future.

How to make the perfect cup of tea




Watch the video and order the sentences. You'll make the perfect cup of tea.


1. Empty the warmed pot

2.Fill pot with boiling water

3. Fill the kettle with boiling fresh water

4.Let the tea sit for 3 to 5 minutes

5. Add milk after/before pouring the tea

6.Warm the pot before the water boils

7. Take a fine china cup

8.Put tea in the teapot


KEY


1.     Fill the kettle with boiling fresh water
2.     Warm the pot before the water boils
3.     Empty the warmed pot
4.     Put tea in the teapot
5.     Fill pot with boiling water
6.     Let the tea sit for 3 to 5 minutes
7.     Take a fine china cup

8.     Add milk after/before pouring the tea


Rehrasing 15



Rewrite the sentences starting with the words given. Do not change the original meaning of the sentences.
      
    1.   She hasn’t promoted anyone this year. (nobody)
          ................................................................................................................
    2.   We were late because we got lost on the way. (if)
          ................................................................................................................
    3.   I’m going to the hairstylist for a haircut. (having)
          ................................................................................................................
    4.   It’s a pity you can’t be here with me now. (wish)
          ................................................................................................................
    5.   “Did you enjoy the concert you went to last night?” Ron asked me. (wanted to know)
          ................................................................................................................
    6.   It was rude of you to point at that woman. (shouldn’t)
          ................................................................................................................
    7.   I’m sleeping in their living room. There’s an incredible view of the city there. (where)
          ................................................................................................................
    8.   When did you start to feel this way? (how long)
          ................................................................................................................
    9.   I think you ought to become a vet. (would)
          ................................................................................................................
  10.   Do you know anyone who owns a car that’s for sale? (whose)
          ................................................................................................................

KEY
1.  Nobody has been promoted this year.
2. If we hadn’t got lost on the way, we wouldn’t have been late.
3. I’m having my hair cut (by the hairstylist).
4. I wish you were / could be here with me now.
5. Ron wanted to know if / whether I / we had enjoyed the concert I / we had gone to the previous night / the night before.
6. You shouldn’t have pointed at that woman.
7. I’m sleeping in their living room, where there’s an incredible view of the city.
8. How long have you been feeling / felt this way?
9. If I were you, I would become a vet.

10. Do you know anyone whose car is for sale?

The science of selfies


            The rise in social media has brought with it a variety of fashions – some wonderful and others incredibly stupid – and new behaviour. For example, it now turns out that millions of humans are bizarrely obsessed with photos of cats! Another thing we’re obsessed with is photos of ourselves – selfies – taken with our mobile phones or tablets and posted on social networks. What could be more narcissistic?
            Some people hate selfies but many of us love them, and we probably all have friends who constantly post selfies on Facebook or Instagram. However, psychologists believe that and may be incapable of forming deep or close relationships with friends or colleagues. Our obsession with selfies reveals an inability to relate to other people properly.
            But why are some of us so fascinated by selfies? Scientists have known for a long time that, despite having mirrors in our houses, we humans don’t have a clear idea of what we really look like. Another experiment demonstrates that we think we are more attractive than we actually are. When we are shown various photos of our face, treated digitally to make us look better or worse, as well as a photo of our face that has not been changed, we are incapable of identifying the unaltered photo. We always choose a photo showing a better-looking version of ourselves.
            So we love selfies because we think we’re gorgeous but our obsession with selfies reveals an inability to have close relationships with other people. Maybe we should just stick to posting photos of cute cats!

Question 1: [2,5 POINTS] Indicate whether the following statements are true or false and write down which part of the text justifies your answer.
      
  a) The author is not impressed by some of the fashions that social media have created.
  b) Posting selfies may reveal a negative side of someone’s personality.
  c) As Humans, we’re absolutely sure of what we look like in reality.
  d) the other experiments showed that we think  other people are more attractive than us.
  e) The author advises us no to post our selfies.

Question 2: [1,5 POINTS] Find words or phrases in the text that correspond to the words and definitions given.
      

a) many different types of (p.1)
b) belief and confidence in your own ability (p. 2)
c) unable to do something (p. 2)
d) unchanged (p.3)
e) very beautiful (p. 4)

Question 3: [2 POINTS] Choose the most suitable answer (a, b or c) according to the text.

1. According to the author narcissistic is
      a) photos taken with our mobile phones.
      b) social networks.
      c) posting photos of ourselves on social networks.

2. A variety of fashions
      a) has brought the rise of social media.
      b) has been brought with the rise of social media.
      c) has brought a new behaviour.

3. In the experiment there were photos
      a) that made the person look both better worse.
      b) that made the person look better only.
      c) that made the person look worse only.

4. The author asked
      a) why some of them were so fascinated by selfies.
      b) why were some of them so fascinated by selfies.
      c) if why some of them were so fascinated about selfies.

Question 4: [4 POINTS] Write a short essay (about 120-150 words) on the following topic:

                     Importance of appearance in our modern society.






KEY


Question 1: [2,5 POINTS] Indicate whether the following statements are true or false and write down which part of the text justifies your answer.
      
       a)  True. a variety of fashions – some wonderful and others incredibly stupid
       b)  True. people who post selfies might have self-esteem. What’s more, a recent study has shown that those people who post lots of selfies may have problems with intimacy
       c) False. we humans don’t have a clear idea of what we really look like
       d) False. Another experiment demonstrates that we think we are more attractive than                we actually are.
       e) True. Maybe we should just stick to posting photos of cute cats!

Question 2: [1,5 POINTS] Find words or phrases in the text that correspond to the words and definitions given.

       a) variety
       b) self-steem
       c) incapable
       d) unaltered
       e) gorgeous

Question 3: [2 POINTS] Choose the most suitable answer (a, b or c) according to the text.

1    c) posting photos of ourselves on social networks.
2.   b) has been brought with the rise of social media.          
3.   a) that made the person look both better worse.
4.   a) why some of them were so fascinated by selfies.

Rephrasing 14

Rewrite the sentences with the correct form of the words in brackets. 
Do not change the original meaning.

    1.  All our classrooms will be painted during the summer break. (have)
          ..............................................................................................
    2.  They hadn’t told us about their plans. (we)
          ..............................................................................................
    3.  I regret taking that job. (wish)
          ..............................................................................................
    4.  They’ll never promote you unless you come up with some good ideas. (if)
          ..............................................................................................
    5.  The guide warned us against disturbing the mother kangaroos. (to)
          ..............................................................................................
    6.  It was wrong of you to litter. (shouldn’t)
          ..............................................................................................
    7.  “Will the lab continue to do animal testing?” the reporter asked Dr Mitchell. (whether)
          ..............................................................................................
    8.  When did you start studying? (how long)
          ..............................................................................................
    9.  Visit the wildlife sanctuary on weekdays. It’s not very crowded then. (when)
          ..............................................................................................
  10.  I’m applying for the position of administrative aide. (which)
            …………………………………………………………………


KEY

1. We are having all our classrooms painted during the summer break.
2. We hadn’t been told about their plans.
3. I wish I hadn’t taken that job.
4. If you come up with some good ideas, they will promote you. / If you don’t come up with some good ideas, they’ll never promote you.
5. The guide warned us not to disturb the mother kangaroos.
6. You shouldn’t have littered.
7. The reporter asked Dr Mitchell whether the lab would continue to do animal testing.
8. How long have you been studying (for)?
9. Visit the wildlife sanctuary on weekdays, when it’s not very crowded.
10. Administrative aide is the position which I’m applying for / for which I’m applying.


Linkers

Complete the gaps in this essay by means of the linkers provided. There is more than one possibility in some gaps.

another reason / as a consequence / as a result / as a result / as a result / because / caused by / consequently / even / for all these reasons / however / however / in contrast / in order to / on the other hand / otherwise / results in / so much...that / so...that / the main cause / therefore


            Two 12-year-old girls are standing outside a mini-mart. They are wearing matching tube tops and short skirts like Britney Spears clones. One holds a cigarette, like an adult, where everyone can see her.   She looks around to make sure other girls are noticing her.  When asked why she dresses the way she does, she says that she likes it. 1___________  it seems that the reason for her behavior is more complex.   More specifically, it has more to do with her ambiguous role as a pee-teen in society.  A young girl's wanna-be look is 2____________ personal insecurity and peer pressure.

            3____________ for mimicking teen-idols is personal insecurity.   Pre-teens are in between child and adult stages. They are no longer children, 4____________ the ways they behaved in the past are no longer appropriate. 5____________,  they are not yet adults; 6____________, they do not know the ways of the adult world. This conflict can 7____________ feelings of insecurity. 8____________, when they were younger, they could whine and cry to get attention from their parents and other children. 9____________, that kind of behavior would be "uncool" around their teenage peers. Often 10____________ , the preteen does not know how to act his or her age. 11____________ preteens do no know what to do, they often turn to copy-cat behavior as a way to fit in and be more secure.

            A second cause is that preteens feel they need to be popular 12____________ be more secure within their own age group. 13____________, they turn toward models of popularity - teen idols - and start dressing like them. Unfortunately, many of their idols dress and behave in ways that are not age-appropriate. Teens need better role models than Hollywood currently has to offer.  14____________, they interpret "dressing up" as wearing provocative, sexy clothing, rather than clothing that makes them look good and feel comfortable and secure. 15____________ of their need to be popular, young girls start dressing and acting as if they were much older than they really are.

            16____________ for young girls mimicking teen idols is peer pressure. They often see the adults closest to them, their parents and teachers, as "uncool", 17____________ as enemies. 18____________, they turn to peers who pressure each other to look, act, and dress exactly alike. This peer group can exert 19____________ pressure ____________ often preteens do things as a group that they would not normally do. One of these things is spending ridiculous amounts of money on idol clothing-lines.  That's right!  Young Hollywood celebrities are making money off  their twelve-year old "peers" who give in to peer pressure.  The peer pressure here is 20____________ great ____________ most normal girls will succumb. 21____________, we can see that personal insecurity, desire to be popular and peer pressure can cause a young girl to look like a little "tart" standing outside of a mini-mart.


KEY

1 however / 2 caused by / 3 the main cause / 4 as a result / 5 on the other hand / 6 therefore / 7 results in /
8 in contrast / 9 however / 10 as a result / 11 because / 12 in order to / 13 consequently / 14 otherwise /
15 as a result / 16 another reason / 17 even / 18 as a consequence / 19 so much...that / 20 so...that / 21 for all these reasons

Other suggested answers



1- Still, / On the contrary, 2- a result of /  because of / due to 3- The main reason  4-  ;consequently, / so   5- Still, / Even so,  6- as a result, / as a consequence, /  7- cause  8- Whereas  9- But (informal) 10- as a consequence  11- Due to the fact that / Since 12- to  13- As a result, For this reason,  14- If not, Or else (informal)  15- As a consequence 16- An additional reason 17- in fact  18- Consequently, As a result, 19- a great deal of  a lot of...(that) 20- so...that  21- As a result of these causes,