martes, 23 de febrero de 2021

'I ditched telly props for growing pumpkins'


 


    It's not a common career path, but a Stirlingshire woman gave up a career in television and film to become Scotland's pumpkin queen.

    Rebecca McEwen trained as a props buyer and worked on productions such as Monarch of the Glen, River City and Peter Mullan's Neds. But when she married a farmer, she threw herself into making a success of her new life and set about making farming fun.

    Rebecca, 35, and Duncan, 34, wanted to modernise the way things were done at Arnprior Farm. Rebecca told the BBC Scotland news website: "We became a Forth Valley Monitor farm run by the Scottish Agricultural College and that made us review the farming system. "We got rid of cattle, increased sheep and started diversifying." The McEwens grew their first pumpkins in 2015.

    Rebecca wanted to grow sunflowers or something they could sell on the roadside. So, Duncan came up with pumpkins and Rebecca came up with the extras on the patch - extras that help the working farm. She said: "We have dug your own tatties, pull your own turnips, and the kale maze. "The kale feeds the sheep in November. "So, kids run through the kale in October - we cut pathways through it - and once the pumpkin season is finished and the sheep are let into the field, they can eat any leftover pumpkins and the kale."

    Until recently, the pumpkin patch was an American tradition. Rebecca had seen family photos of relatives in Philadelphia visiting the pumpkin patch. She thought families would love to visit a working farm and enjoy the autumn outdoors. But there is a nod to the Scottish location.

    Rebecca explained; "We started the turnips because people would come in and complain, saying 'why do we have to follow America?'. "So, Duncan said let's grow turnips and we can give the Scots their turnips as well."

    Arnprior Pumpkins reveals its crop to the public this weekend. After a long dry summer, the farm enjoyed a pumpkin boom. Visitors get to choose from 7,000 of them grown across four acres of land. Children can even play on a hay bale playground and feed the sheep. Rebecca thinks it's a great way to get the family outside.

    In the spring they open their doors and let visitors help with the lambing and next year they'll let people stay in new glamping pods on the farm. One thing they've had to introduce to the pumpkin patch is welly boots hire, after a strange incident. "These two girls arrived in open-toed stilettos one year," explained Rebecca. "They couldn't believe it was a real farm, but they were brilliant and embraced it, had the best time. "But then had to get their feet pressure washed."


Read the text and match the phrasal verbs in bold to the following definitions.

1. To think of an idea or plan.

2. To stop doing a regular activity or job.

3. To remove or throw away something unwanted.

4. To do something actively and enthusiastically.

5. To start to do or deal with something.

6. To enter.



KEY

1. Came up with

2. Gave up

3. Got rid of

4. Threw herself into

5. Set about

6. Come in



Stand up -- it could help you lose weight

 


A new study published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology found that standing instead of sitting for six hours a day could prevent weight gain and help people to actually lose weight.

Prolonged sitting has been linked to the obesity epidemic, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Europeans sit for up to seven hours a day, and even physically active people may spend most of the day in a chair.

This paper examined whether standing burns more calories than sitting. The researchers analysed results from a total of 46 studies with 1,184 participants in all. Participants, on average, were 33 years old, 60% were men, and the average body mass index and weight were 24 kg/m2 and 65 kg, respectively.

The researchers found that standing burned 0.15 kcal per minute more than sitting. By substituting standing for sitting for six hours a day, a 65 kg person would expend an extra 54 kcal a day. Assuming no increase in food intake, that would equate to 2.5 kg in one year and 10 kg in four years.

Senior author Professor Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Chief of Preventive Cardiology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, US, said: "Standing not only burns more calories, the additional muscle activity is linked to lower rates of heart attacks, strokes, and diabetes, so the benefits of standing could go beyond weight control."

The gap in energy expenditure between standing and sitting could be even greater than the study found. Participants were standing still, while in reality people make small movements while standing. "Our results might be an underestimate because when people stand they tend to make spontaneous movements like shifting weight or swaying from one foot to another, taking small steps forward and back. People may even be more likely to walk to the filing cabinet or trash bin," said Professor Lopez-Jimenez.

The authors concluded that replacing standing for sitting could be yet another behaviour change to help reduce the risk of long term weight gain. They suggest more research is needed to see whether such a strategy is effective and practical. Data is also needed, they say, on the long term health implications of standing for extended periods.

Professor Lopez-Jimenez said: "It's important to avoid sitting for hours at a time. Standing is a very good first step to avoid this mindset of sitting interminably without moving. Who knows, it may also prompt some people to do a little more and take up some mild physical activity, which would be even more beneficial."


Question 2: [1,5 POINTS] Answer the following questions in your own words.

1) How was the study carried out?

2) Why are the results of the study an understimate?

Question 4: [1,5 POINTS] Choose and write the most suitable answer (a, b, c or d) according to the text and COPY the sentence onto your answer sheet

1.- Standing may make you lose more calories...

a) even though you do not eat more.

b) as long as you do not eat more.

c) unless you eat more.

d) provided that you eat more.


2.- More research..........to see whether a strategy is effective and practical.

a) is suggested to have needed.

b) is suggested to need it.

c) is suggested to be needed.

d) is suggested to be needing.


3.- The risk to suffer certain diseases lowers...

a) due to more muscle activity.

b) because more muscle activity.

c) although more muscle activity.

d) since more muscle activity.


KEY

Question 2

1) Researchers carried out 46 different studies. More than 1,100 people participated; slightly more than half out of them were men, with an average age of 33. They all shared an average weight of 65kg and a mass index of 24kg/m2.

2) The results may vary if they take into consideration that people usually move unconsciously by standing on one foot or another or by changing their weight while standing. People may even walk either by short steps or by going to the paperbin or the filing cabinet.


Question 4 

1-b 2-c 3-a


Pronunciation



Say these words aloud. Three of the words in each group have the same sound. 

One of them has a different sound. Which is the odd one out?



1. vote flown north smoke

2. toe draw door         boring

3. call short aubergine yawn

4. shoulder notice open snore

5. walk old         more tall


Key 

1. north

2. toe

3. aubergine

4. snore

5. old 


REPHRASING - REPORTING VERBS



Rewrite the sentences in reported speech using the reporting verbs below. Make any necessary changes.

suggest • tell • advise • remind • warn • admit • complain

1. “It’s all my fault,” Olivia said.

2. “My football team has lost again,” Ethan said.

3. “You should apologise to your friend,” Sharon said.

4. “Don’t hit your brother again!” Dad said.

5. “We cleaned the kitchen,” the children said to their mother.

6. “Let’s not decide anything now,” the lawyer said.

7. “The festival starts in May, not in June,” Grace said.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………


KEY

1. Olivia admitted that it was all her fault.

2. Ethan complained that his football team had lost again.

3. Sharon advised me to apologise to my friend.

4. Dad warned me not to hit my brother again.

5. The children told their mother that they had cleaned the kitchen.

6. The lawyer suggested not deciding / that we not decide anything then.

7. Grace reminded me that the festival started in May, not in June.


Problem solving



Read the paragraphs and answer the questions


1. When Mr Taylor died he left £1,000 to his sons. He had three sons. Martin was 28 years old, James was 25, and the youngest, Peter, was only 20.

Mr Brown divided the money in a special way. Each son received £10 for every year of his life and a third of the reminder.


How much did each son received? ……………………………


2. Yesterday Mr Roberts bought a pen, a pencil and a ruler. They cost 40 pence all together. The pencil cost half as much as the ruler, and the pen cost five times as much as the pencil.

How much did each of the three things cost? …………………………


KEY

1. Martin received £370, James £340 and Peter£290.

2. The pencil cost 5p, the ruler 10p and the pen 25p. 


Who says what?



Match the people with the instruction/ orders


1. Landlady

2. Teacher

3. Dentist

4. Bank clerk

5. Politician

6. Doctor

7. Telephone operator

8. Police officer

9. Disc jockey

10. Bus driver



a. Listen to this record. It’s the new number 1.

b. Put your money in, please.

c. Don’t be late home!

d. Wait for the other passengers to get off!

e. Open your mouth, please.

f. Don’t park here. Can’t you see that sign?

g. Sit down and stop talking! 

h. Sign your name on the cheque here, please.

i. Take these pills twice a day.

j. Don’t believe her! Vote for me instead.



Key

1. c

2. g

3. e

4. h

5. j

6. i

7. b

8. f

9. a

10. d


The British system of government

    The United Kingdom is a monarchy. The Queen is the head of state, but she doesn’t have much power. The monarchy is hereditary; Prince Charles, the Queen’s son, will be the next King.

Parliament consists of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The members of the House of Lords are called peers. There are no elections for the House of Lords. Some peers are hereditary; others are life peers. Life peers are people who have served the nation in a special way. The Queen chooses life peers in consultation with the Prime Minister. The House of Lords is less important then the House of Commons.

There are 650 members of the House of Commons. They are elected for a maximum of five years. British citizens can vote when they are 18 years old. After an election, the political party with the largest number of members of the House of Commons forms the government. The leader of this party becomes the Prime Minister. The most important minister in the government form the Cabinet. The Cabinet makes government policy, but it is responsible to the House of Commons.


Are these statements TRUE or FALSE?

1. The British elect the Queen.

2. Prince Charles will be the next King.

3. The British elect the members of the House of Lords.

4. The House of Commons has more power than the House of Lords.

5. The Queen chooses the members of the House of Commons.

6. All the members of the government are in the Cabinet.


KEY

1. False

2. True

3. False

4. True

5. False

6. False


VOCABULARY



Choose the correct answer to show that you have understood the meaning of the words in bold.

1. The computer course was very effective.

a. It was a waste of time.

b. We learned a lot.

2. Can you keep a secret?

a. I don’t want anyone to know.

b. Tell as many people as you can.

3. The spectators… .

a. paid a lot of money for the tickets

b. are playing for the championship

4. Can you lend me your phone?

a. I’ll pay you for it.

b. I’ll return it soon.


KEY

1. b 2. a 3. a 4. b


REPHRASING - PASSIVE VOICE



Rewrite the sentences in the passive. Omit the agent when possible.

1. My grandmother grew vegetables in the garden.

2. Do they deliver the groceries from the supermarket?

3. He was hanging out the clothes when it started to rain.

4. Someone hasn’t closed the door.

5. When will the waiter bring the food?

6. They should start the project soon.

Key

1. Vegetables were grown in the garden by my grandmother.

2. Are groceries delivered from the supermarket?

3. The clothes were being hung out when it started to rain.

4. The door hasn’t been closed.

5. When will the food be brought?

6. The project should be started soon.


sábado, 13 de febrero de 2021

Dramatic discovery links Stonehenge to its original site – in Wales


Listen to the extract from the video and answer the questions below


Dramatic discovery links Stonehenge to its original site – in Wales

Fri 12 Feb 2021 

An ancient myth about Stonehenge, first recorded 900 years ago, tells of the wizard Merlin leading men to Ireland to capture a magical stone circle called the Giants’ Dance and rebuilding it in England as a memorial to the dead.

Geoffrey of Monmouth’s account had been dismissed, partly because he was wrong on other historical facts, although the bluestones of the monument came from a region of Wales that was considered Irish territory in his day.

Now a vast stone circle created by our Neolithic ancestors has been discovered in Wales with features suggesting that the 12th-century legend may not be complete fantasy. Its diameter of 110 metres is identical to the ditch that encloses Stonehenge and it is aligned on the midsummer solstice sunrise, just like the Wiltshire monument.

A series of buried stone-holes that follow the circle’s outline has been unearthed, with shapes that can be linked to Stonehenge’s bluestone pillars. One of them bears an imprint in its base that matches the unusual cross-section of a Stonehenge bluestone “like a key in a lock”, the archaeologists discovered.

Mike Parker Pearson, a professor of British later prehistory at University College London, told the Guardian: “I’ve been researching Stonehenge for 20 years now and this really is the most exciting thing we’ve ever found.”

The evidence backs a century-old theory that the nation’s greatest prehistoric monument was built in Wales and venerated for hundreds of years before being dismantled and dragged to Wiltshire, where it was resurrected as a second-hand monument.

A century ago the geologist Herbert Thomas established that the bluestones at Stonehenge originated in the Preseli hills. The newly discovered circle is virtually a stone’s throw (3 miles) from Preseli, being dragged more than 140 miles to Salisbury Plain some 5,000 years ago.

Question 1: [2 POINTS] Indicate whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE and write down the sentences or part of the text that justifies your answer. No points will be given if the evidence is not correct.

      a)      Wales has always been part of England.

b)      Geoffrey’s myth is likely to be true.

c)       The new site was found underground.

d)      The stones at Stonehenge were taken from Wales.

Question 3: [1,5 POINTS] Find words or phrases in the text that correspond to the words and definitions given. You only need to have five correct answers to get 1,5 points.

a)      to reject (par.2)

b)      Ample (par.3)

c)       Impression (par.4)

d)      to support (par.6)

e)     to undo (par.6)

f)     very near to (par.7)

 

 KEY

Q.1

a)      FALSE “a region of Wales that was considered Irish territory in his day

b)      TRUE “the 12th-century legend may not be complete fantasy” OR “The evidence backs a century-old theory”

c)       TRUE “the circle’s outline has been unearthed”

d)      TRUE “the bluestones at Stonehenge originated in the Preseli hills. The newly discovered circle is virtually a stone’s throw (3 miles) from Preseli”

Q.3

a)      (to) dismiss(ed)

b)      (vast)

c)       imprint

d)      (to) back(s)

e)     (to) dismantle(d)

f)     stone’s throw


 

 

martes, 9 de febrero de 2021

STONEHENGE

 


Driving across Salisbury Plain in the South of England, you can see a group of stones in the middle of an enormous plain. When you get closer you see how extraordinary it is.

The main construction is a circle of huge stones with other stones on top of them. Around them there is another circle of stones. Who built it? How did they build it? When? Why?

People who have studied the position of the stones carefully think that Stonehenge may be a gigantic calendar, used to tell the time of the year by the sun. But nobody is completely sure.

Some authors think that visitors from another planet built it. The first author who wrote about it said that Merlin, the magician, brought the stones to England and used magic to place them like they are now.

Other authors think the stones came from Wales and the builders carried then on rafts up the river.

 Who knows the truth? Will the builders come again some day to tell the secret of Stonehenge?


1.- Stonehenge is in Wales.

2.- There are two circles of stones.

3.- We are sure that it is a calendar.

4.- Merlin was a visitor from another planet.

5.- Some people think that the builders carried the stones by water.

6.- The stones are very big.


KEY

1.-False

2.- True

3.- False

4.- False

5.- True

6.- True


PROBLEM SOLVING

Read the short paragraph and answer the questions


It is 3rd April today. Miss Lakes’s birthday was the day before yesterday, and Miss Brown’s was a week before that. The day before her birthday, Miss Lake played tennis. Miss Brown did not play tennis on that day, but she played on the day after her birthday.


1. When was miss Lake’s birthday? ………..

2. When was Miss Brown’s? ………….

3. When dis Miss Lake play tennis? …………..

4. On what date did Miss Brown play? …………………


Key

1. It was on the 1st April

2. It was on the 25th May

3. She played on the 31st  March

4. She played on the 26th March


Honolulu plans fines for looking at a mobile phone while crossing the road

 


            Pedestrians who look at their mobile phones while crossing the road in Honolulu face fines of up to $99 (£76). The measure to tackle the problems of "distracted walking" will come into force in October. It will apply to the island of Oahu, which is home to 80 per cent of the state's population.

            Most states in the USA ban texting while driving. Honolulu - which has a population of around a million - will be the first to penalise pedestrians who cross the road while staring at their smartphones.First-time offenders will be hit with a $15 fine, but serial offenders will face far stiffer penalties rising to $99.

            Pedestrians will still be allowed to make and receive calls, because it is assumed that they are looking where they are going at the same time.

            Although Hawaii is breaking new ground, there is growing concern at the potential dangers of distracted walking.

            As far back as 2013, a study appeared in the Journal of Safety Research called "Ambulatory cellphone injuries in the United States: An emerging national concern”. It noted a rising number of distracted pedestrians being injured, with 1,500 being taken to Accident and Emergency in 2012.

            The threat was highlighted at a conference held by the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration last year. "I sponsored this after it was brought to my attention by local high school safety clubs," Brandon Elefante, a member of Honolulu City Council, told the Telegraph. "I felt this was a way in which we could address this growing problem of people who don't pay attention while crossing the street.

            "There has been some resistance from those who think this is government overreach and whether it is enforceable, but we have been working with the police to ensure it is enforceable. In the end, you can't put a price on somebody's life, this is a matter of public safety."

 

Question 1: (2 points). Indicate whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE and write down the sentences or part of the text that justifies your answer. No points will be given if the evidence is not correct.

      a)    Any citizen in Hawaii will be fined due to this measure.

b)    People in almost any state in the USA may be fined if texting while crossing the road.

c)     Hawaii is the first to enforce a measure like this.

d)    Some people think the authorities are going beyond their duties.

Question2: (2 points) Answer the following questions in your own words according to the text.

 a)    Why will pedestrians only be fined when texting?

 b)    Why did the City Council start this programme?

Question 3: (1,5 points) Find words or phrases in the text that correspond to the words and definitions given. You only need to have five correct answers to get 1,5 points.

a) become applicable (par.1)

b) to prohibit(par.2)

c) preoccupation (par.5)

d) to draw attention to (par.6)

e) to exceed (par.7)

f) compulsory (par.7)

 

Question 4: (1,5 points) Choose the correct option – a, b, c or d – for each question and COPY both the letter and the sentence that follows onto your answer sheet.

 People will be fined more money...

a) unless they use their phones less.

b) as long as they are caught only once.

c) regardless the number of times they are caught.

d) if they use their phones repeatedly.

Texting while crossing the road is believed...

a) to be causing many accidents.

b) to be caused many accidents.

c) that will cause many accidents.

d) to will cause many accidents.

The authorities felt they had to take action...

a) due to they thought it was a growing problem.

b) since they thought it was a growing problem.

c) as a result they thought it was a growing problem.

d) consequently, they thought it was a growing problem.

 

PART 2

 

(3 points) Written production

Write a short essay (120 – 150 words) on the following topic. Essays up to 200 words will not be penalized.

There should be limits to the overuse of mobile phones in public places. Do you agree?

 

  

KEY

 

Question 1

a)  FALSE “It will apply to the island of Oahu, which is home to 80 per cent of the state's population.”

b)  FALSE “ Most states in the USA ban texting while driving.” “ Honolulu will be the first to penalise pedestrians who cross the road while staring at their smartphones.”

c)   TRUE “ Hawaii is breaking new ground”

d)  TRUE “ There has been some resistance from those who think this is government overreach.”

 Question 2

a)   Pedestrians will only be fined if they use their phones to text as the authorities consider that you can pay attention to what is happening around you when you make or receive calls.

b)  They started the programme since they noticed the number of people who were at risk in the street was growing. These people use their phones when they cross the roads, putting their lives in danger, and this is a problem that authorities felt they had to tackle.

 Question 3

a)    come into force

b)    Ban

c)     Concern

d)    Highlight(ed)

e)    Overreach

f)      enforcable

Question 4

a)    1.D

b)    2.A

c)     3.B

 

REPHRASING - REPORTED SPEECH



 Rewrite the questions in reported speech.

1. “How often does the bus leave?” the traveller wanted to know.

2. “Have the workers gone on strike?” the reporter asked.

3. “Why didn’t the doctor check your temperature?” Mother wondered.

4. “Can you give me directions to the station?” the driver asked.

5. “Which dessert are you going to choose?” the waiter wanted to know.



Key 

1. The traveller wanted to know how often the bus left.

2. The reporter asked if / whether the workers had gone on strike.

3. Mother wondered why the doctor hadn’t checked my temperature.

4. The driver asked if / whether I could give him directions to the station.

5. The waiter wanted to know which dessert I was going to choose.


REPHRASING



Complete each sentence according to the meaning of the original sentence. Use the words in backets.

1. Next week, I’m meeting my cousin from Canada for the first time. (never)

I .

2. They want to sell the car soon. (yet)

They .

3. Did you eat seafood in the past? (ever)

Have .

4. Jan sent her job application yesterday. (already)

Jan .

5. The last time Charles saw his sister was a month ago. (for)

Charles .


Key

1. I have never met my cousin from Canada.

2. They haven’t sold the car yet.

3. Have you ever eaten seafood?

4. Jan has already sent her job application.

5. Charles hasn’t seen his sister for a month.



BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH 5




Find 14 pairs of English and American words


trousers – movies – chips – autumn – pants – gas – sweets – vacation – sidewalk – lift – taxi – fall – cab – tube – elevator – return – pavement – cinema – lavatory – restroom – round trip – French fries – candy – petrol – subway – cookie – holiday – biscuit



KEY

1. trousers – pants

2. return – round trip

3. lift – elevator

4. holidays – vacation 

5. autumn – fall 

6. chips – French fries

7. tube – subway

8. petrol – gas

9. lavatory – restroom

10. cinema – movies 

11. sweets – candy

12. pavement – sidewalk

13. biscuit – cookie

14. taxi – cab 


VOCABULARY


 

Choose the correct answer.

1. If you talk back / over to your teacher, you will be punished.

2. Amanda complained that her older sister always talks out of / down to her.

3. We talked Dad down to / into taking us to the beach on Saturday.

4. She couldn’t talk her husband back / out of going to work although he was ill.

5. The boss wants to talk over / down to the new office rules with his workers.


KEY

1. back 4. out of

2. down to 5. over

3. into


Punctuation


Add commas (,) in the blanks where necessary

Examples

Sue Allen , who is my best friend ,works as a nurse.

The woman  /  who wrote the book / is no longer alive.

1. John May ___ whose father owns the ABC company ___helped me to get a job there.

2. We helped some people ____ whose car had broken down.

3. She works for a company ___ that makes personal computers.

4. Is that the bus ___ which goes to Brighton.?

5. Southampton ___ which is on the south coast of England ___ is a busy sea port.

6. Bobby King ___ who is the captain of City Football Club ___ has been chosen to play for England next month.



Key

1. , /

2. / /

3. /

4. /

5. , ,

6. , ,


martes, 26 de enero de 2021

Why do Zebras have stripes? Scientists claim to have the answer



With the collaboration of the students of 2º Bachibac 
IES Alberto Pico (Santander)





Wearing striped clothing could help protect holidaymakers from mosquito bites, scientists have found after solving the mystery of why zebras are black and white.

It is a question which has plagued biologists for centuries but now a team from the University of California, Davis, believe zebras’ unusual monochrome markings evolved in order to repel biting insects, such as horseflies and tsetse flies, which tend to avoid striped surfaces. And the findings could help humans cut their risk of being bitten by donning stripy T-shirts, although scientists cautioned that the type of striped surface and material used may alter its effectiveness.

“A T-shirt may help somewhat but it might not be the whole story. Certainly if you are going to buy a T-shirt make sure the stripes are thin,” Tim Caro, lead author and UC Davis professor of wildlife biology said. “Don’t buy a striped jumper too quickly. Black and white striped surfaces reflect different sorts of visible light but they also reflect different sorts of polarised light which we can’t see but flies can. “The extent of polarised light reflected also depends on the nature of the surface – think of gloss and matte paint – and hairs probably reflect polarised light in different ways. “So it may be that the different hairs of the zebra’s pelt are important in preventing flies from landing on them.”

Varying explanations for zebra stripes, which have been proposed since Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Darwin debated the problem 120 years ago, have included a form of camouflage, assisting escape from predators by visually confusing them, heat management or some kind of social function.

The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, mapped the geographic spread of seven different species of zebras, horses and asses and their subspecies and recorded the thickness, location and intensity of their stripes on several parts of the body. It compared the animals’ geographic reach with other variables such as woodland habitats, the range of predators, temperatures and the numbers of ectoparasites such as tsetse flies. After examining where the striped animals and variables overlapped the scientists ruled out all but one of the existing explanations, that of avoiding blood sucking flies.

"No one knew why zebras have such striking colouration," Prof Caro said. "But solving evolutionary conundrums increases our knowledge of the natural world and may spark greater commitment to conserving it." According to Prof Caro it is not yet known why biting flies avoid striped surfaces. He said: “Some ideas include lateral inhibition but these are not researched as yet.”

Question 1: [2 POINTS] Indicate whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE and write down the sentences or part of the text that justifies your answer. No points will be given if the evidence is not correct.

 

a)    It has never been an interesting question why zebras are white and black.

b)    Wearing a striped T-shirt prevents you from being bitten by insects.

c)     The explanation for zebra stripes had been proposed a long time ago.

d)    One reason about zebra stripes could be a way to control their temperature.

e)    The study has shown that it is probably that the aim of stripes is to avoid flies.

f)      According to Prof Caro, solving evolution mysteries is pointless.

g)    We know for sure why biting flies avoid striped surfaces.


Question 2: [2 POINTS] Choose and answer only TWO of the following questions in your own words according to the text.

a)    According to Davis, why do zebras have stripes?

b)    Why aren’t zebras bitten by insects?

c)     What can flies see in black and white striped surfaces but humans cannot?

d)    Which comparations were done among the different species of zebras, horses and asses?

e)    Why do zebras have such striking colouration?

 

Question 3: [1,5 POINTS] Find words or phrases in the text that correspond to the words and definitions given. You only need to have five correct answers to get 1,5 points.

a)    Disturb (paragraph 2) 

b)    Hold back (paragraph 2)

c)     Modify (paragraph 2)

d)    Complete (paragraph 3)

e)    Sweater, pullover (paragraph 3)

f)      Issue (paragraph 4)

g)    Help (paragraph 4)

h)    Mystery (paragraph 6)

i)      Dedication (paragraph 6)

 

Question 4: [1,5 ] Choose the correct option – a, b, c or d – for each question and COPY both the letter and the sentence that follows onto your answer sheet.

  1. Biting flies avoid …
    1. any stripy T-shirts.
    2. zebras’ pelt
    3. white and black surfaces
    4. thin stripes
  2. Black and white striped surfaces reflect …
    1. all sorts of light
    2. different sorts of visible and polarized light
    3. visible light that we cannot see but flies can.
    4. only polarized light.
  3. The explanation given for the stripes of zebras after the study published in the journal Nature Communications is that …
    1. it is a kind of social function.
    2. it is a form of repelling flies.
    3. it protects them from predators.
    4. it doesn’t give any clear explanation

 

Written production (3 points)

Write a short essay (120 – 150 words) on the following topic. Essays up to 200 words will not be penalized.

“Zoos should be banned since animals should live in the wild”. Do you agree with this statement?

                                        

Key

Question 1: [2 POINTS] Indicate whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE and write down the sentences or part of the text that justifies your answer. No points will be given if the evidence is not correct.

a)    It has never been an interesting question why zebras are white and black.

(p 2) False It is a question which has plagued biologists for centuries

b)    Wearing a striped T-shirt prevents you from being bitten by insects.

(p 3) False A T-shirt may help somewhat but it might not be the whole story

c)     The explanation for zebra stripes had been proposed a long time ago.

(p 4) True explanations for zebra stripes, which have been proposed since Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Darwin debated the problem 120 years ago.

d)    One reason about zebra stripes could be a way to control their temperature.

(p 4) True have included a form of camouflage, assisting escape from predators by visually confusing them, heat management

e)    The study has shown that it is probably that the aim of stripes is to avoid flies.

(p5) True the scientists ruled out all but one of the existing explanations, that of avoiding blood sucking flies.

f)      According to Prof Caro, solving evolution mysteries is pointless.

(p 6) False But solving evolutionary conundrums increases our knowledge of the natural world and may spark greater commitment to conserving it.

g)    We know for sure why biting flies avoid striped surfaces.

(p 6)  False it is not yet known why biting flies avoid striped surfaces

 

Question 2: [2 POINTS] Choose and answer only TWO of the following questions in your own words according to the text.

a)    According to Davis, why do zebras have stripes?

(p2)They have them because they are an evolution change which allows zebras to repel insects that always try to avoid striped surfaces.

b)    Why aren’t zebras bitten by insects?

(p3) Insects tend to avoid striped surfaces; however, black and white surfaces reflect different sorts of polarised light which can only be seen by them, so it may be that the different hairs of zebra’s pelt are important in preventing flies from landing on them.

c)     What can flies see in black and white striped surfaces but humans cannot?

(p3) different sorts of polarised light

d)    Which comparations were done among the different species of zebras, horses and asses?

(p5)The study compares the natural place of the animals with factors like the kind of habitat, other dangerous species, the temperature and parasites such as tsetse flies.

e)    Why do zebras have such striking colouration?

(p 6) It isn’t known yet,

 

Question 3: [1,5 POINTS] Find words or phrases in the text that correspond to the words and definitions given. You only need to have five correct answers to get 1,5 points.

a)    Disturb (paragraph 2)                 plagued

b)    Hold back (paragraph 2)            repel

c)     Modify (paragraph 2)                 alter

d)    Complete (paragraph 3)             whole

e)    Sweater, pullover (paragraph 3) jumper

f)      Issue (paragraph 4)                   problem

g)    Help (paragraph 4)                    assisting

h)    Mystery (paragraph 6)               conundrum

i)      Dedication (paragraph 6)           commitment

 

Question 4: [1,5 ] Choose the correct option – a, b, c or d – for each question and COPY both the letter and the sentence that follows onto your answer sheet.

 Biting flies avoid …

    1. any stripy T-shirts.
    2. zebras’ pelt
    3. white and black surfaces
    4. thin stripes
  1. Black and white striped surfaces reflect …
    1. all sorts of light
    2. different sorts of visible and polarized light
    3. visible light that we cannot see but flies can.
    4. only polarized light.
  2. The explanation given for the stripes of zebras after the study published in the journal Nature Communications is that …
    1. it is a kind of social function.
    2. it is a form of repelling flies.
    3. it protects them from predators.
    4. it doesn’t give any cleat explanation